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The KFWH Dictionary of Terms

The KFWH Dictionary of Terms

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERALining up for school in Chad,

slate boards in hand

Please add words to our dictionary in the “Message Board Forum” section. Include the word and its definition. Thanks everyone!


List of Acronyms:

AT- African Trypanosomiasis

CDC-Center for Disease Control ( and Prevention)

DNDI- Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative


FAO- Food and Agriculture Organization

FIND- Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics

GAVI- Global Alliance for Vaccines and Innoculations

HAT- Human African Trypanosomiasis

KFWH- Kids for World Health

MSF- Medecins sans Frontieres

PAAT- Program Against African Trypanosomiasis

PAHO- Pan American Health Organization

PATTEC- Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign

PEPFAR- President’s Emergency Fund for AIDS Relief

SCIH- Swiss Centre for International Health

STI- Swiss Tropical Institute

UNDP- United Nations Development Program

UNFPA- United Nations Fund for Population Activities

UNICEF- United Nations Childrens’  Fund

WHA-World Health Assembly

WHO- World Health Organization


Global Health Organizations and Their Structures

Pam Bolton-Global Education, 2009

   I. Government Agencies 

  • Ministry of Health in the country

  • Developed country programs (called bilateral aid) PEPFAR- President’s Emergency Fund for Aids Relief-US..30 billion by 2010National governments.  In developing countries, the government is aprimary source of health care services.

   II. NGO’s ( non-governmental organizations)

  • MSF( Medecins sans Frontieres) or ( US- Doctors Without Borders)
  • Africare
  • Clinton Foundation and some other
  • DNDI ( Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative) is a  network NGO’s , a new type of NGO and .an emerging   pattern
  • KFWH ( Kids for World Health)
  • GAVI Alliance (Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization)
  • NGO’s (international):  Address a specific need or mission.  Get their funding from others and either make grants to others and/or provide assistance directly by having field offices in the countries where they work

               Example:Clinton Foundation.   (named foundation but more like an NGO). One Clinton Foundation program is the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative (“CHAI””).  President Clinton established the Initiative in 2002 to close gaps in treatment access by negotiating lower prices for lifesaving antiviral treatment, and by working with governments to improve the national health care systems required to deliver crucial medicines. Since then, CHAI has expanded its scope of work beyond ARVs to increase access to diagnostics and malaria medicines.

  •  Networks- like other NGO’s but have a unique way of working.
  • Example:  Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi). In 2003, seven organisations from around the world joined forces to establish DNDi: five public sector institutions – the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation from Brazil, the Indian Council for Medical Research, the Kenya Medical Research Institute, the Ministry of Health of Malaysia and France’s Pasteur Institute; one humanitarian organisation, Médecins sans Frontières (MSF); and one international research organisation, the UNDP/World Bank/WHO’s Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), which acts as a permanent observer to the initiative

D       DNDi doesn’t conduct research and scientific work to develop drugs itself works with the other organizations that are already doing research and coordinates their activities. The initiative fosters collaboration both amongst developing countries and between developing and developed countries. Its design is a blend of centralized management to give it a clear project-specific focus, and decentralized operations that mimic modern drug companies.

 Works on:  Sleeping Sickness (HAT), Kala Azar (VL) and  Chagas disease

 III. Academic Action Centers

  •  Sabin Institute
  •  University of Kenya Medical and Research
  •  University of North Carolina
  •  Pace University
  •  India Council of Medicine and Research
  •  John’s Hopkins
  • Georgia State
  • London School of Hygiene

Universities.  Example:Baylor University,Peter Hotez. May conduct programs and practical research in developing countries.  Have a dual purpose of helping people now and advancing scientific or medical knowledge that will help them later—for example might work on developing new vaccines or treatments as well as studying how a disease infects people or how a HAT-carrying tsetse fly behaves.

 IV. Pharmaceutical Corporations- Research and Medicines

  •  BMS ( Bristol-Myers Squibb)
  •  Bayer
  •  Aventis/Sanofi

Commercial research-based drug companies.   Nowadays there are several that do research on neglected diseases.  However, this work is generally seen as an expression of their social responsibility or corporate citizenship because they recognize that the medicines they develop are unlikely to ever sell at a profit.

(Commercial generic drug companies also may produce medicines for neglected diseases and may be able to make a profit on them if the production costs can be reduced enough.  Their overall costs of operation are much less than research-based companies because they don’t do R&D, they just manufacture pills.)

 V.  Multilateral Organizations –multi-countries working together

  • UNICEF( United Nations Children’s Fund)
  •  UNDP ( United Nations Development Program)
  •  World Bank
  •  WHO( World Health Organization)
  •  World Health Assembly
  •  UNFPA ( United Nations Fund for Population Activities)
  •  PAHO ( Pan American Health Organization)

 Multi-lateral organizations.  These are organizations made up of many member countries.  They also can provide grants and technical assistance to developing countries—usually to the government (e.g. Ministry of Health) rather than to NGOs

VI. Bi-Laterals Organizations2 sides/ one wealthy and one or more poorer countries

  • Refugees International
  • President’s Malaria Initiative
  •  PEPFAR( President’s Emergency Fund for AiDS Relief)

 Donor country governments.  E.g., the U.S. (USAID) gives grants to governments or NGOs working in a developing country.  This is called bilateral aid because it involves two countries and an agency like USAID is often called a bilateral

VII. Foundations( similar to NGO’s but have their own money)

  •  The Melinda and Bill Gates Foundation
  •  Warren Buffet Foundation

Foundations.  Are set up for a specific purpose or mission like an NGO but have their own financial resources to devote to the mission in the form of an endowment.  Each year they give away just a portion of the endowment

Example:  Gates Foundation.  Has $36B endowment.

 Because Bill, Melinda, and Warren believe the right approach is to focus the foundation’s work in the 21st century, we will spend all of our resources within 50 years after Bill’s and Melinda’s deaths. In addition, Warren has stipulated that the proceeds from the Berkshire Hathaway shares he still owns at death are to be used for philanthropic purposes within 10 years after his estate has been settled

 (must give money away during a set time period)

VIII.  Religious Groups

·       Church groups often operate hospitals (called Mission Hospitals) and are known to have the best care.



Trypanosomiasis- Sleeping Sickness